Limited editions "Smart Surfaces"
July 2009 - Concept: onlab, Nicolas Bourquin
Illustrations and linocuts: onlab, Marte Meling Enoksen, Maike Hamacher, Matthias Hübner
published in the book "Smart Surfaces and their Application in Architecture and Design", Thorsten Klooster (Ed.), Birkhäuser Verlag
A limited edition of linoprints and silkprint posters is available for purchase.
Linoprint limited edition available for EUR 50,00
Silkprint poster available for EUR 25,00
* prices excluding shipping costs
The linoprints were produced during the book launch of "Smart Surfaces and their Application in Architecture and Design", on July 2nd 2009, from 18:30-22:00 at Modulor Haus, Berlin.
The silkprint poster was exclusively produced for the exhibition "Membranes Surfaces Boundaries" at Aedes Pfefferberg Berlin.
In general terms, the application of a thin film involves the vapour deposition of pure metals, or alloys, on substrates in a vacuum environment. New and further-developed coating techniques in the field of thermal vaporisation, such as pulsed magnetron sputtering (PMS) and plasma-activated high-rate evaporation (physical vapour deposition, PVD), or the CVD (chemical vapour deposition) process, can be used to change specific functional properties of a whole range of basic materials.
Photocatalysis refers to the activation of chemical oxidative or reductive processes in the coating by UVA light or sunlight, giving rise to the degradation of organic and inorganic substances lying on the surface. The hydrophilic properties of the coating lead to the contact angle of the water on the film surface being reduced to less than 110°. The consequently reduced flow resistance assists in forming a thin film of water and dislodging the degraded substances. On account of the semiconducting nature of the compound, titanium dioxide coatings have an antistatic effect, which results in the particle-repellent action displayed by plastic components, or varnished surfaces.
A conducting material (rear contact) is applied to a carrier material (substrate), which is responsible for structural stability. This is followed by the actual light-converting (photoactive) layer, which absorbs photons and generates free electric charge carriers. These then reach another conducting material (front contact) at the top of the cell, thereby allowing a flow of current when any electricity-consuming device is connected.
Thermoelectric generators (TEG) can transform small temperature differences of about 5°C into electric current. These make use of the Seebeck effect: electrons become more mobile, i.e. richer in energy, under the influence of heat. The difference in thermal energy between the warm and cold end of the semiconductor results in an electron concentration gradient.
Mechanical façades / kinetic façades: the specifically directed reflection of daylight by electronically controlled mobile façade elements.
The simplest form of organic light-emitting diode consists of a semiconductive, organic, ultra-thin film of conjugated polymers (i.e. polymers that are luminescent on account of their specific atomic structure), enclosed by two electrodes: one transparent translucent anode and a metallic cathode reflecting the light produced in the OLED. When current flows through this sandwich, negatively charged electrons move from the cathode to the organic film. In the meantime, positive charges, called «holes», are generated by the anode. Electrons and holes move towards each other, ideally meeting in the middle of the OLED film. In the course of this, their charges are neutralised, they recombine and the energy released in the process is emitted in the form of photons, i.e. light.
The "ideal wall" describes the typical wall construction as a sequence of functional layers for the control of light, sound, rain, air, vapour, cold and heat in order to protect the structure and the interior of the building).
In the same way as massive building components, thin layers charge latent heat storage elements (Phase Change Materials PCM) with thermal energy during the day, without significantly changing temperature of the latter, and release it again at night. This functional principle allows a regulated ventilation of the interior, balancing out heat surpluses alternately between day and night. Typical, highly efficient PCMs include the wax paraffins.
The LEDs transmit a pattern across the narrow side of the panel which is detected by sensors located on the opposite side. Touching the surface interrupts the path of projection of the beams, with certain light beams "not reaching the detectors". The position of the finger can therefore be registered as an interference, using the projection grid.
Whereas sensors convert a physical quantity to electrical energy, actuators, being electromechanical components, do just the opposite: they convert electricity to sound, pressure, temperature, movement, light or torque.